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Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) Juice a Potent Treatment for the Virulent Hepatocarcinogen Aflatoxin B1 in Peanut Paste

Abstract

Esameldin Bashir Mohamed Kabbashi , Salah Eldeen Abbas Ali , Nawal Abdelgayoum Abdelrahman

Objective: This study aimed at providing a method for elimination of aflatoxin B1 in peanut paste using a natural product. This is of importance given that the occurrence of aflatoxins is generally unavoidable in spite of the use of protective methods, including use of natural products, during storage. Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins and products of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and other less important aspergilli. They include B aflatoxins (B1 , being the most potent hepatocarcinogen known, and B2 ) which are produced by both species and aflatoxins G (G1 and G2 ) that are produced by A. parasiticus and aflatoxin M1 and Q1 metabolites of B1 and aflatoxin M2 metabolite of Aflatoxin B2 . Since the discovery of aflatoxins in 1960, after an outbreak of a disease of unknown etiology of turkey in England, the scientific approach towards these toxins concentrated on the protective measures and control of the incidence of these carcinogens. Methods: Since the incidence of aflatoxins is generally unavoidable countable attempts were done on the treatment of these toxins in food and feed products. Accordingly, this persuaded testing some easy and familiar culinary approaches to mitigate and/ or perhaps diminish the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFLB1 ) in the commonly consumed peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) paste. Lime juice, in two doses (12.5 and 25 ml), was applied to 25 g peanut paste contained AFLB1 (7.53 ppb) and stored for 1, 3 and 7 days. The test material was then analyzed for AFLB1 using Aflatest® HPLC column of Vicam® of Waters corporation and HPLC Shimatzu® brand. Results: The collected data of the test samples reflected a reduction in AFLB1 . That is, the addition of 12.5 and 25 ml lime juice, effected 11% and 31% reduction in AFLB1 , respectively (for one day storage), 54% and 66%, respectively (for 3 days storage), and 74% and 92%, respectively (for 7 days storage). Sensory evaluation of the two test mixtures of peanut paste and lime juice and the control reflected an acceptability of 83 ± 2; 61 ± 2 and 40 ± 2% for 1: 2, control (0: 1) and 1: 1 mixtures (volume/ weight of the paste and the juice), respectively. Conclusion: These results are encouraging for use of lime juice as a treatment for aflatoxin B1 in peanut paste (preferably 1: 2 mixture) wherever applicable.

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