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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Aml) overview

Editorial - Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology (2021)

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Aml) overview

Srinivas V*
 
1Southport Psychological Services, Calgary, Canada
 
*Corresponding Author:
Srinivas V, Southport Psychological Services, Canada, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jun 05, 2021 / Accepted Date: Jun 20, 2021 / Published Date: Jun 26, 2021

Abstract

  

Acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood. It’s known by a variety of names, including acute myelogenous leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. AML is the second most common leukemia type in adults.Doctors call AML “acute” because the condition can progress rapidly. The term “leukemia” refers to cancers of the bone marrow and blood cells. The word myeloid, or myelogenous, refers to the cell type it affects.

Myeloid cells are precursors to other blood cells. Usually these cells go on to develop into red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and special types of white blood cells (WBCs). But in AML, they aren’t able to develop normally.When a person has AML, their myeloid cells mutate and form leukemic blasts. These cells don’t function as normal cells do. They can keep the body from making normal, healthy cells.

Eventually, a person will start to lack RBCs that carry oxygen, platelets that prevent easy bleeding, and WBCs that protect the body from diseases. That’s because their body is too busy making the leukemic blast cells.

Advancements in cancer treatments and doctors understanding of the disease mean that more and more people survive the condition each year.Every year doctors diagnose an estimated 19,520 peopleTrusted Source in the United States with AML. An estimated 10,670 deaths occur on a yearly basis because of the disease.Most people with AML receive chemotherapy treatments. These medications rapidly kill dividing cells, such as cancer cells. Chemotherapy can lead to remission, which means a person doesn’t have symptoms of the disease and their blood cell counts are in a normal range.

Around 90 percent of people with an AML type known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) will go into remission after “induction” (first round) of chemo. This is according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). For most other types of AML, the remission rate is around 67 percent.Those older than age 60 don’t typically respond to treatment as well, with about half of them going into remission after induction.Some people who go into remission stay in remission. Still, for many, AML can return over time.

The five-year overall survival rate for AML is 27.4 percentTrusted Source, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This means that of the tens of thousands of Americans living with AML, an estimated 27.4 percent are still living five years after their diagnosis.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of leukemia that starts in very early or immature forms of white blood cells called myeloblasts (or blasts for short). It’s also known as acute myelogenous leukemia. In some cases, the leukemia cells start in early red blood cells called megakaryocytes.

As the leukemia cells grow, they crowd out the normal cells in the bone marrow. This can keep the bone marrow from making enough of different types of healthy blood cells. People with AML have too many white blood cells in their blood. But these cells are not normal and don't help fight infections. In fact, people with AML often get more infections than people without it. AML can also lead to low blood cell levels. This is called anemia. It can cause paleness, shortness of breath, and tiredness (fatigue). AML can lead to not enoughplatelets